Houses of any age will shift and settle over time, resulting in cracks. Cracks may appear in finishes, structural components or both. Though they usually don’t have any structural significance, it’s worth some visual detective work to help homeowners understand the difference between different types of foundation cracks.
Concrete shrinks as it cures, so a newly poured concrete foundation may develop small vertical shrinkage cracks, which are not structurally significant. Characteristics of shrinkage cracks include:
- The crack will be small and vertical, usually less than 1/8” wide.
- The crack is in the foundation wall only and does not extend up through the structure.
- Shrinkage cracks usually occur in the middle third of the length of the foundation wall. If it’s located toward the end of the length of the foundation wall, it is probably not a shrinkage crack.
Like shrinkage cracks, settlement cracks are vertical, but they extend up through the structure. In block or brick foundations, cracks may follow the mortar joints in a step pattern rather than vertical. Most settlement cracks are caused by short-term settlement. Ongoing settlement is uncommon but can cause structural problems over time. Here are some ways to get an idea of whether ongoing settlement is likely:
- Crack size: Settlement cracks more than 1/4” wide are more likely to indicate ongoing movement than smaller cracks.
- Direction of movement: The edges of a typical settlement crack line up and fit together vertically, much like pieces of a puzzle. If the edges of the crack have shifted, or sheared, so that they no longer line up, the 1/4” rule described above doesn’t apply. This type of crack can be a significant structural concern.
- Repaired and re-cracked: Unless it is a hairline crack, a settlement crack that was repaired and has re-cracked could also indicate ongoing movement and should be addressed.
Horizontal Cracks – Basement Foundation Wall
In homes with true basements, a horizontal crack in the foundation wall, below grade and running the full length of the basement is likely a sign of foundation failure. For a house with a full basement, the soil outside the foundation wall exerts a tremendous amount of pressure on the foundation wall. Occasionally, unanticipated additional loads exert pressure and cause horizontal cracking in the foundation wall. Do not wait to address this potential issue as it could cause much greater problems down the line, including structural failure.
Contact your local Pillar To Post Home Inspector for further information on these and other home-related issues.
Planning that summer vacation? Here are our top tips to give you added peace of mind while you’re away.
- One of the most effective steps is to make your home appear occupied. Use timers or an app on a few lights throughout the house, scheduling them to turn off and on at various times after dark.
- Use extra caution when communicating about your vacation dates on Facebook and other social media. And don’t post photos until you’re back. Information spreads quickly, and you don’t want it to get into the wrong hands.
- Advise friends and trusted neighbors of your travel plans. Make sure you can be reached in an emergency if necessary.
- Have the post office hold your mail and suspend any newspaper and package deliveries, or ask a neighbor to collect them for you each day. A buildup of mail or uncollected packages or papers are obvious signs that no one is home.
- Ask a neighbor to park in your driveway on occasion so it looks like there is someone at home.
- Arrange to have someone mow the lawn in your absence if you’re going to be gone for more than a week.
- Close the window coverings in ground-level rooms so that would-be thieves aren’t tempted by valuables and other items visible from outside.
- Unplug appliances such as the coffee maker, toaster, microwave, computers, gaming systems and televisions. Be sure to leave the refrigerator and freezer plugged in of course.
- To avoid the potential of water damage from an unpredictable leak or a burst hose, shut off the water supply lines for the toilets, sinks, washing machine, dishwasher, and ice maker. It takes just a few minutes and can prevent coming home to a disaster.
- Adjust the water heater to its lowest temperature setting or to vacation mode if it has one. Maintaining the hot water at its normal temperature while you’re away wastes energy and money.
- If possible, pack your vacation gear into the car while it’s in the garage so that you’re not announcing to passersby that you’re on your way out of town.
- Lock the garage, gates, and storage structures. Don’t forget to lock any side doors to the garage, as well as doors leading into the house from the garage.
Enjoy your time away, knowing that you’ve taken these smart measures to help keep your home safe and secure.
Buyers and sellers often hear about plumbing upgrades, but just what does this mean? Generally speaking, upgraded plumbing in the context of buying or selling a home refers to both fixtures and/or the plumbing system itself. Here’s our list of the most frequently recommended upgrades:
- New faucets are an easy way to add style to kitchens and baths without a lot of spend. If a home is being prepped for sale, use fixtures that will appeal to the most potential buyers. The idea is not necessarily to draw attention to the faucets, but to demonstrate that they’re modern and in good condition.
- Toilets are another simple upgrade that will also have a positive effect on how the home is perceived. If space allows, an elongated bowl and a high-profile height are smart choices. A neutral color that works with the existing tile and walls is always best.
- A shower upgrade can be as basic as adding a handheld shower unit to the existing setup, or install a rain-type shower head, which are very popular in new homes. Also consider a thermostatic valve for the shower, which prevents scalding while the shower is running. It’s a nice feature that’s inexpensive to add.
- Home re-piping continues to grow in popularity for older homes. During this process, all water lines in the home are replaced. Sometimes the line from the water main to the house may need to be replaced as well.
- Why re-pipe? Over time, old galvanized metal pipes will degenerate, increasing the potential for leaks, reducing water flow, and causing material to flake off inside the pipes. The taste and appearance of water can also be adversely affected. Some older homes have lead pipes, which are less subject to corrosion but pose a serious health hazard for children.
- Typically, replacement piping is made of copper or one of several types of PVC. The best material to use depends on a number of factors, including the hardness of the water and winter temperatures. Always seek out the opinions of several contractors before making the important – and not inexpensive – decision to re-pipe the home. Depending on your location, re-piping may not pay off in terms of return on investment but could be a very appealing feature to a potential buyer.
Buyers typically don’t want to think about plumbing, so upgrades are often welcome. As with any upgrades, however, consider market conditions and comparables when making recommendations to your sellers.
Spring is on the way, and that means it’s the perfect opportunity to get your home ready for the months to come. Here are our top tips to get you started:
- Winter can take a real toll on a home’s exterior. Wood, stucco and other types of siding should be checked for cracks, peeling or chipped paint, and general wear and tear. Have damaged areas repaired and repainted as needed for lasting protection.
- Clean gutters and downspouts of any debris that may have collected over the winter. Check for any loose connections and adjust if needed.
- Check patios and walkways for cracks and any loose bricks or pavers. These are a tripping hazard that needs to be corrected promptly.
- If window screens were removed for the winter, make sure they’re cleaned up and in good condition before reinstalling them.
- Walk around the property and check for damaged tree limbs and branches. If a large tree appears to be damaged, be safe and call a professional to address any issues.
- Inspect raised planter beds to make sure they’re in good shape. Before it’s time to plant, mix in some compost and fresh garden soil to help your flowers and vegetables thrive.
- Inspect the irrigation system for broken sprinkler heads and emitters. Also check for overspray and have the system adjusted to prevent water waste.
- Have a swimming pool? As soon as the weather allows, have it inspected and cleaned so you don’t have to wait for service later in the season.
Happy spring to everyone from Pillar To Post Home Inspectors!